Complexity is a deep property of a system, whereas complication is not. A complex system dies when an element is removed, but complicated ones continue to live on, albeit slightly compromised. Removing a seat from a car makes it less complicated; removing the timing belt makes it less complex (and useless).

Complicated worlds are reducible, whereas complex ones are not.

John H. Miller & Scott Page. Complex Adaptive Systems.”

March 18, 2019